Influenza prevention and treatment by passive immunization
Barbara Kalenik, Róża Sawicka, Anna Góra-Sochacka and Agnieszka Sirko
Passive immunity is defined as a particular antigen resistance provided by external antibodies. It can be either naturally or artificially acquired. Natural passive immunization occurs during pregnancy and breast-feeding in mammals and during hatching in birds. Maternal antibodies are passed through the placenta and milk in mammals and through the egg yolk in birds. Artificial passive immunity is acquired by injection of either serum from immunized (or infected) individuals or antibody preparations. Many independent research groups worked on selection, verification and detailed characterization of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against the influenza virus. Numerous antibody preparations were tested in a variety of in vitro and in vivo experiments for their efficacy to neutralize the virus. Here, we describe types of antibodies tested in such experiments and their viral targets, review approaches resulting in identification of broadly neutralizing antibodies and discuss methods used to demonstrate their protective effects. Finally, we shortly discuss the phenomenon of maternal antibody transfer as a way of effective care for young individuals and as an interfering factor in early vaccination.
Acta Biochimica Polonica, 61(3), 573-587, Review
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